Health Care Review

HEALTH AND DISEASE

The concept of Health is somewhat difficult to understand. When we say a person is healthy, it means to the lay man that the person is normally doing his activities and does not outwardly show any signs of any disease in him. However, for the medical man it denotes the conformity to certain standards like physical measurements, biochemical norms and rates, physiological standards, etc. Even these standards vary with race, rest, exercise, food, habits, starvation, climate, altitude, latitude, etc. It has been extremely difficult for scientists concerned with human biology to lay definite criteria for health and define the term Health in a specific manner.

From the history of medicine we know that there have been various systems of medicine or healing arts evolved in different parts of the world during different civilizations. But in no system has there been a clear-cut definition of health.

In the oxford dictionary health means the state of being free from sickness, injury or disease, bodily conditions; something indicating good bodily condition. A few decades ago this meaning was conveyed in the definition of health but recently the World Health Organization have considered it necessary to give a direction towards the achievement of a robust and happy and active bodily and mental condition capable of continuous productive ability and, therefore, have defined health as follows:

“Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity.” (WHO—1948) it will be seen that even after having this definition it will be difficult to conceptualise and standardise positive health with specific clear-cut attributes and criteria for measurement. A person may be enjoying mental equanimity and enthusiasm for doing anything. He may also be physically able to do any amount of work, but he may be having some minor dysfunction or deficiency or even a mild infection causing a very minor disturbance which however does not upset his normal activities.

For example, Hyper pigmentation on the skin or lack of pigmentation on the skin; angular stomatitis due to B complex deficiency; a ring-worm patch on the skin, etc. In these conditions strictly speaking the person cannot be called ‘health’ but for outward purpose he will appear healthy and he will also be fully active. Similarly, under the mental component there are ever so many stresses and strains that an individual is exposed to and depending on his own mental make-up he is either able to overcome the strain or suffers from worry and depression. If in spite of his worry he is able to function normally others may take him to be healthy, whereas the worry may normally be making him mentally unsound.

Social well-being is very much related to the mental adjustment of the individual to others around him in the family or in the community. Sometimes it may so happen that a person may find it had to adjust with his group and may, therefore, be under a mental strain. But he may be doing his work normally from which others would judge him to be healthy. It is only if he reaches a break-point and behaves either in a withdrawn manner or becomes aggressive that his mental condition will become manifest to be seen and experienced by others.

We have, therefore, to understand that the term health is not an abstract thing but a relative concept. In it we see a continuum of freedom from sickness to better health and positive health. When we say positive health we refer to a condition in which the body has sufficient reserve nutrition and resistant factors to prevent the invasion of the body by any micro-organism or by the deprivation of any nutritional factors causing a deficiency pathology and, therefore, completely free from disease.

Disease is a little less difficult to define than Health. It denotes the condition of the human body in which something has gone wrong and has upset the Norman functions of the body including the mind. As in health there is also a continuum from a predisposition or premonition of illness which may or may not be experienced or noticed even by the individual concerned, to a definite condition of illness manifested by signs or symptoms and impairment of body functions.

This continuum may further extend from mild sickness to severe sickness and death or recovery from sickness back to a debilitated condition and later to a normal condition.

As has been pointed out in the previous paragraphs the normally of health of person may shift towards positive health depending on the improvement of health by wholesome food, wholesome water proper living conditions, proper work atmosphere, good personal hygiene, etc., or the deterioration of health due to faulty or inadequate food, infection through food, water or air, skin or due to external injuries, accident etc.

For maintenance of good health the following things are essential:

1. Adequate quantities of proper nutrition
2. Adequate quantities of safe drinking water
3. Proper shelter with adequate ventilation and lighting
4. Proper clothing
5. Proper work, exercise and rest and recreation
6. Proper social conditions for a harmonious existence and work
7. Proper security from fear of any kind
8. Proper sexual behavior
9. Personal hygiene
10. Provision and utilization of health services.

Disease can be due to say one or more of the following causes:

1. Genetic traits
2. Congenital deformity or malformation
3. Cancer
4. Malnutrition
5. Poisons

The above are the direct causes.

The science of epidemiology employs various methods and approaches to explore, investigate, identify and establish the cause of disease as against maintenance of health in the individual, in the community and in a geographical area. Modern epidemiology has revealed a multiple causation theory for most of the diseases. The direct or immediate causes may be congenital, traumatic, infection or cancerous growth, etc. But besides these direct causes, many indirect and predisposing causes have been described,

For example, tuberculosis is caused by the tubercule bacilli, called myco bacterium tuberculosis, this is the direct cause. The other causes which predispose a person to the infection by tubercule bacillus may be overcrowding, poor nutrition, bad ventilation, heavy work, fatigue, etc. It may be appreciated that these causes are socio-economic causes. The economic factors arising out of poor means of livelihood, inadequate food, etc., are also inter-related with human and social factors like bad ways of living, customs, habits, beliefs, superstitions, etc. Taking another example, malnutrition may be due to either lack of availability of nutritious food in adequate quantities or the wrong practices of preparation of food in which nutrients may be wasted. The economic factors may be the cause for non-accessibility and the social factors may be the cause of wastage of nutrition even after the food stuffs are available or on the contrary over eating and addiction to alcohol, etc., causing metabolic disorder. In the rural countryside we have a lot of locally available food resources but the habits may be such that the people do not know what can be eaten and how, for deriving nutrition.

The human and social factors are very predominant determinants in any society or community. In affluent countries many of the metabolic diseases like obesity, heart diseases, diseases due to air pollution, etc., are on the increase due to social customs. In the poor countries the large number of communicable diseases and nutritional deficiencies are due to poor sanitation, poor hygiene and low and faulty intake of food. These are again in turn due to economic and social factors.

Study of human behavior is extremely important in public health and in any community oriented programme. The mere opening and establishment of hospitals or clinics or treatment centers by any government or voluntary agencies does not immediately ensure that all the people will use the facilities whenever they fall sick. For a person to seek treatment for a particular illness from a doctor or an institution the following stages of human behavior are expected to take place.

Social psychology has a very prominent place as a diagnostic tool in the beginning of the programme and also as a tool of evaluation where the programme is under progress or at its termination. For example, in the control of Cholera or any gastro enteric infection, it will be futile to introduce any sanitation programme unless the people know the causative factor and the mode of transmission of infection. There may be need to improve the water supply, provide proper excreta disposal, food hygiene and personal hygiene. All these things involve a scientific awareness of the reasoning behind each measure or practice and a change of behavior accordingly.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Poly_Khan/1615809

 

A Quick And Easy Method To Get A Cheap Health Insurance Quote

Healthcare charges are through the roof, and consequently so are health care insurance rates. So how can you get a low cost health insurance plan? The following article demonstrates how to get an inexpensive health plan with a top-rated company the easy way…

Major Medical Plans

Major medical health plans, also referred to as catastrophic health plans, are the lowest cost non-comprehensive health plans. These plans have a high insurance deductible (the total amount you pay toward your claim before your insurance kicks in), plus affordable premiums.

Major medical plans only cover hospital fees like surgical treatments, hospital stays, X-rays, and diagnostic tests. They don’t cover visits to your physician or prescription drug costs.

If you are relatively young, in good health, hardly ever visit your physician, do not use high-priced prescription drugs, and are on a tight budget, these plans could be just the ticket for you.

Comprehensive Medical Plans

The lowest priced comprehensive health insurance plans are Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs), Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs), and Point-of-Service plans (POSs).

HMOs

HMOs are the lowest priced of the comprehensive health insurance plans. They supply health care via a network of doctors and medical facilities picked by the HMO.

When you visit your physician you are required to pay a small copayment, commonly $10 to $15. The upside of these plans is there are no deductibles to pay for, and you do not need to spend your time filling in health insurance forms like you will with conventional medical plans.

Your primary care doctor is going to either treat you or else refer you to a specialist whenever you need medical help. You are not covered if you decide to see a doctor who isn’t a part of your network.

Preferred Provider Organizations

PPOs cost slightly more than HMOs, and they are the most popular health care insurance plans because they allow for more flexibility than HMOs. Like an HMO, you will need to select your health care provider from an approved directory of doctors.

Your copayment for every doctor visit is about the same as an HMO’s, there are no forms to fill in, and no deductibles to pay. However there are no gatekeepers with a PPO so you can go to a medical specialist without first seeing your primary care doctor.

Point of Service Plans

POS plans are more expensive than HMOs and PPOs, but deliver the greatest flexibility of the three medical insurance plans. They supply heath care treatment by way of a health provider network, but you also have the option of seeing a physician of your choosing.

Copayments for doctor visits within the network tend to be about the same as they are for HMOs and PPOs, and you will be reimbursed up to 80% for your out-of-network visits to the doctor after you pay the deductible.

Low-cost Health Insurance Quotes

The simplest way to get inexpensive health insurance quotes is to pay a visit to an insurance comparison internet site. At these sites you’ll receive price quotes from health insurance companies competing for your business.

When you visit one of these sites you will be asked to complete an easy questionnaire with details about yourself and your health. After you submit the questionnaire you will begin to receive quotes from several top-rated companies. You may then examine your quotes in the privacy of your home, and choose the plan with the cheapest quote which fits your needs.

Using a comparison website is fast, it’s easy, and it’s totally free.

Click the link which follows in order to get your low cost health insurance quotes from top insurers.

Click on the website link that follows to look at a video recording which shows you how to get low cost health insurance quotes from top insurers.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Brian_Stevens/12560

 

Health and Your Inner Teacher

When you travel the halls of your memory, who do you remember as your most influential teachers? How did these teachers influence your life and change it for the better? Great teachers spark more than math, literature, or science in your life. They spark something else as well, something deeper and long-lasting that stays with you. As an individual living your life, you have another teacher you may not have touched on in your memory. That teacher is you! When you’re trying to get healthy and support your body and mind better, your inner teacher is key toward achieving what you want.

Health involves learning. You learn about your body and which lifestyle habits foster balanced health, versus which habits derail health. But you also learn something else. You learn about yourself as a person, how you face challenges, and which obstacles are blocking your road to health. The journey toward health involves more than regimens for diet, exercise, and sleep. The journey is unique to who you are and where you’re at in life too.

Bringing out your inner teacher to learn about your health isn’t always easy. Everyone wants to believe they are perfectly healthy, and sometimes facing the reality that your health needs more support can be challenging. It means admitting that you’re not perfect and that you still have more to learn. It takes knowing that supplements, medications, or doctor’s visits alone can’t keep you healthy. You as a person are an essential part of your health, and acknowledging this fact takes honesty and courage.

When you call forth your inner teacher in an open and honest way, you can explore your physical and mental-emotional health through a unique lens. You can ask yourself if there are societal and personal expectations that are burdening you and blocking your health. You can explore whether some part of your past unfairly has a hold on your health and who you are today. You can explore your relationships with yourself and other people to see whether they are supporting or hindering health. You can also notice how you manage stress and emotions and whether your current approach could use some adjustment for better health.

Good teachers both challenge you out of your comfort zone and patiently support you through the discomfort that can result. Getting healthier can feel strange and uncomfortable at times. The body and mind are used to doing what they always do—in other words, homeostasis or equilibrium. They will maintain states of health, but they also maintain states of unbalanced health. To get healthy, your inner teacher has to push you beyond comfortably unhealthy habits. On the other hand, your inner teacher also has to patiently help you through these potentially awkward transition periods and regularly remind you: “I can do this!”

What steps have you taken lately to bring out your inner teacher on the road to better health? If you feel that it’s been a while since you’ve listened to your inner teacher, that’s okay. He or she is always there and you can turn to that side of yourself when your health feels neglected or stuck. Remember to give your inner teacher the same respect that you would any other great teacher in your life.

As you head into the autumn season, a period of time that is infused with transition in the air around you, encourage your inner teacher by asking yourself the following questions:

1) What are current strengths in my health?

2) What are some weaker points of my health that require more attention and learning?

3) Without focusing too much on the past or the future, what steps can I take today toward better health?

4) What are my obstacles to health in the present moment?

5) How can I create space in my life for my inner teacher to express itself and help me with health?

As you ask yourself these questions, you’ll find that your body and mind naturally know which direction to go in—if you listen to them. By paying attention to your inner teacher, you’ll learn new things about your health and how better to support it. And you’ll enter your own hall of fame of great teachers.

Healthovers is a natural health website that connects the dots between symptoms to help relieve chronic health issues, improve overall health, and support natural beauty. Dr. Aarti Patel, N.D. is a naturopathic doctor who creates a well-rounded natural health plan for each Healthover. What is a Healthover? It’s a makeover for health! Visit http://www.Healthovers.com today to request a free 10-minute phone consultation.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Aarti_Patel/1482896

 

Yo-Yo Health Habits and How to Stop

We commonly hear about “yo-yo” dieting, but in fact people are tempted to approach many other health habits in that up and down style. What is yo-yoing? When you try dieting or getting healthy in an all or nothing fashion, then you’re yo-yoing. These health habits feel great when you’re on the upswing, successfully performing all the rules that you’ve set in place. Once you run out of motivation to practice health habits at such a stringent level, then you enter the yucky downswing of this practice. All the progress you made can seem to vanish overnight. How do you break this vicious cycle?

Yo-yo habits place a burden on your body by not letting health settle into a steady rhythm. With so many ups and downs, the body doesn’t feel rested or truly taken care of. The habits are also intertwined with mental-emotional ups and downs. To break the cycle, this style of healthiness has to be recognized for what it really is—a diversion rather than true self care. When you decide to go from nothing to everything, from total neglect to constantly pressuring your mind and body to do one thing, real health habits don’t get a chance to develop.

Which health habits are you used to yo-yoing? Are they related to diet, exercise, sleep, or something else? Think about why you approach your health habits in this manner. Sometimes fear can infiltrate a natural urge to get healthy and make you feel like if you’re not doing everything, then it’s not worth the effort. This mindset can make you feel more deficient than it does provide you with effective motivation, support, and momentum toward health. Feelings of fear and deficiency then become the foundation for new health habits, and they don’t offer a very steady foundation at that.Roblox HackBigo Live Beans HackYUGIOH DUEL LINKS HACKPokemon Duel HackRoblox HackPixel Gun 3d HackGrowtopia HackClash Royale Hackmy cafe recipes stories hackMobile Legends HackMobile Strike Hack

This pendulum mindset obviously tells you that putting in smaller amounts of effort more consistently is not good enough. But does that make sense? When you watch an athlete practicing a sport, someone who goes all or nothing doesn’t get a chance to regularly practice good habits for performance. Your health is the same way. Consistent habits, even if they’re on a smaller scale will go a lot farther than large efforts that only last a few days to a week. When you focus on quality over quantity in health, you’re taking a more realistic approach and one that your body will welcome more openly and sustain over a longer period of time.

Take a look at your health habits and figure out whether they’re in danger of the chaotic yo-yo experience or whether they’re actually sustainable. Think about which of your habits have never lasted past the short-term and why that may be. If you notice some yo-yoing going on, brainstorm on how you can re-frame these habits into more lasting and quality expressions of health.

As you resist the urge to yo-yo and you settle into more realistic and consistent health care routines, you’ll be amazed at how much farther your efforts take you. The fears will be easier to face when you’re not riding a health roller coaster, and feelings of deficiency will be less frequent and instead be replaced with more natural confidence and motivation surrounding your health.

What can you do to stop the vicious cycle of yo-yo health habits in your life?

Healthovers is a natural health website that connects the dots between symptoms to help relieve chronic health issues, improve overall health, and support natural beauty. Dr. Aarti Patel, N.D. is a naturopathic doctor who creates a well-rounded natural health plan for each Healthover. What is a Healthover? It’s a makeover for health! Visit http://www.Healthovers.com today to request a free 10-minute phone consultation.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Aarti_Patel/1482896

 

Telemedicine in the Affordable Health Care Act Explained

Telemedicine is an important component of the robust and technology driven Affordable Care Act system (Obama care) and provides avenues for reducing costs in the new healthcare structure, because it offers options in how to access healthcare services.

The Affordable Care Act is the most comprehensive overhaul of the nation’s health care system in decades and it’s implementation and sign-ups will all be processed through marketplace exchanges.

What is the Meaning of Telemedicine?

Telemedicine is the use of telecommunication and information technology to provide clinical health care without a traditional face-to face consultation. It helps eliminate distance barriers and can improve access to supplementary medical services for people with:

  • Basic or No Insurance
  • High Deductible (HDHP) Insurance
  • Traditional Insurance

Tele-health Vs Telemedicine

‘Tele-health’ is an older, broader term for services such as health education and is not limited to clinical services, while ‘Telemedicine’ narrowly focuses on the actual curative aspect between the patient and healthcare professional. Examples of Tele-health are health professionals discussing a case over the telephone or conducting robotic surgery between facilities at different ends of the world.

Tele-Health has a broader scope than telemedicine and is sometimes called e-health, e-medicine, or telemedicine. Health care professional use tools like e-mails, e-visits, e-prescribing, after-hours care, e-reminders, health assessments, self-management tools, health coaching etc.

The State of the Market

The Affordable Care Act (Obama Care) Health Insurance Exchange (HIX) opens on Oct 1st, 2013. and goes into operation on Jan 1st, 2014. The Obama Care exchanges, are State, Federal or joint-run online marketplaces for health insurance. Americans can use their State’s “Affordable” Insurance Exchange marketplace to get coverage from competing private health care providers.

Steps to Sign up for Health Care Plans

  • Participants enter personal information into a web portal
  • Learn their eligibility for subsidies based on income, state-determined criteria or employer-based options.
  • Use a price calculator to shop, compare and choose a best benefit health plan.

Several major health companies have programs like TelaDoc in Aetna, KP-OnCall in Kaiser etc, trying to set up footholds in a market that is widely expected to grow rapidly. All participants have to do is research for telemedicine benefits through their health insurance plans or sign up for independent programs.

How Health Care Professionals Administer Telemedicine

Doctors can treat most everyday health needs by phone or a scheduled video consultation. A study by the American Medical Association shows that 4 out of 5 visits to a primary care doctor could have been treated over the phone instead. After each consultation, patients will receive a clinical report which can be emailed to a primary care physician.

Registered Nurses manage triage calls and act as health coaches. For some specific symptoms, they give guidance for the most appropriate care, and over 32% of the time will offer self-care options so patients avoid a visit to the doctor, ER or Urgent Care facility entirely.

Common symptoms often treated through Telemedicine

Respiratory Infections, Cold/Flu Symptoms, Urinary Tract Infections, Sore Throats, Headaches/Migraines, Sinusitis, Allergies, Insect bites, Certain Rashes, Sprains/Strains, Arthritic Pain, Stomach Aches/Diarrhea, Gastroenteritis, Minor Burns and many non-emergency medical conditions

By 2014, the law mandates that all non-exempt Americans have health insurance or face a tax penalty. The Affordable Care Act has far-reaching advantages such as prohibiting insurance companies from dropping a clients’ coverage if they get sick or discrimination against anyone with a pre-existing condition and extending children’s eligibility on parent’s plans.

For entrepreneurs, who will most likely be responsible for their own health insurance, knowing how telemedicine can supplement their health insurance plans, means they can take full advantage of the options, savings and benefits.

Ama Danesi is an author, entrepreneur, marketer and business consultant, with an MBA in Financial Management. Drawing from her corporate work experiences and financial background, Ama focuses on helping home business owners, marketers and entrepreneurs with financial and marketing issues. Please visit my website at  http://www.maadanconsulting.com   for resources and more information.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Ama_Danesi/1656019